Diseases of the digestive system occupy the third place in the structure of incidence of adults.
The chronic gastritis develops due to errors in the diet (due to the use of rough and very acute food), the presence of Helicobacter pylori, bile acids in the gastric content of a long nerve from the mental stress, occupational hazards, smoking and alcohol abuse. Currently, "chronic gastritis" is seen as a concept which includes inflammatory and degenerative changes of the mucous membrane of the stomach. In practice, the diagnosis of chronic gastro is placed when endoscopic study.
Its main forms are surface (blue tongue fission) and atrophic. This separation means the conservation or the loss of glands, which has a functional value. A series of classifications, which include the preparation, shape, subatrophic, meaning begins to atrophy of the glands.
Depending on the prevalence of altered cells and of the depth of penetration of an inflammation in the thickness of the mucosa non-gastritis atrophic is divided into poorly pronounced, moderately pronounced and strongly expressed gastritis. The inflammatory process may cover the mucosa of the entire stomach, or any department, so you must place focal gastritis.
Gastritis atrophic is characterized by changes in cells that degenerative nature, the decrease in the number of glands and inflammation of the mucous membrane, similar to when expressed on the surface gastritis. Depending on the decrease of amount of glands, celebrated reasonable and expresses the degree of atrophy. In 50% of cases, this form of gastritis combines with the realignment of the mucosa (may be celebrated metaplasia fund, escherichia coli metaplasia, dysplasia epithelium). The true pre-the change is considered to be the dysplasia epithelium, which is three degrees.
In addition to the main forms of gastritis include and its special forms: hyperplastic ("verrucosa", polypoid), hypertrophic, granulomatous, hypertrophic, collagen and others. Focal hyperplasia of the mucosa and consider it as the oldest form of polyp. When the cast bile in the stomach under the action of bile acids develops expressed inflammation, metaplasia, atrophy of the glands and lobular hyperplasia.
The Infection N. Pylori causes the most severe form of the disease. Thus, the most likely cause of the infection factor is detected when erosive, and hypertrophic form, a little less likely to subatrophic, atrophic and superficial gastritis. In people with a long history of disease (17-20 years) is more determined by reducing the acidity level, and normal or increased acid celebrated, with the shortest term.
Symptoms and treatment
The symptoms of the disease are nonspecific and varied. Patients concerned with the appearance of aches and pains and feeling of weight in the epigastrium, rupture and overload the stomach, or a sensation of hunger after the meal, the burning sensation epigastric and saturation, abdominal distention after eating, heartburn, belching, nausea, vomiting, excessive salivation, regurgitation of food, decreased appetite.
Gastritis hemorrhagic is one of the most severe damage, accompanied by formation of multiple erosions and manifests in the blood. In patients occurs vomiting in the form of "coffee powder homemade" and receives the feces. When abundant loss of blood is loss of consciousness and develops anemia. The most common cause of this form of gastritis is the prolonged intake of glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
The treatment of gastritis is directed toward eliminating all the factors that cause the worsening of the disease. In the first place are drugs that reduce the acidity of gastric — H2-blockers, but now widely applied proton pump inhibitors, as well as they efficient H2-blocker 3-10 times.
In the detection of Helicobacter pylori pass it exstirpatione, applying 3-component of a treatment regimen or blockers pump protons, in combination with two antibiotics). When the inefficiency of these schemes go framework-therapy.
In parallel to the prevention of dysbiotic changes in the intestine prescribe integrated probioticsthat contain strains of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms and inhabit the intestine at different levels. Antacids medicines slightly affect the level of ph, but apply as immersive tools that increase the resistance of the mucosa to the production of hydrochloric acid and pepsin. In the case of violation of motor-evacuation of gastric contents are assigned prokinetics.
When the symptoms of gastritis treatment with diet is of great importance, because the food dry, irregular and irrational feeding, drinking excessively cold or hot, the food and the large amount of spices cause the worsening of the gastritis. Over many decades, when the disease recommend that you keep a diet, as when the ulcer.
If you need a strict diet in the gastritis? Despite the fact that the last time departing from severe restrictions in the diet, even when the ulcer, however, nutrition, especially in the period of aggravation should not contain irritating substances. It is recommended to follow a diet light, and your grade will depend on the manifestation of aggravation. In addition, the composition of the feed depends on the state and of the acid-forming function of the stomach.
For those who have gastritis with low acidity, proper Diet number 2, which provides the stimulus secretory function of the stomach and includes sokogonnym products and dishes. Are allowed:
- The first dishes in low-fat meat/fish/mushroom broth, pickles with rubbed vegetables and the water from the cucumber.
- Porridge oats in water or broth (deleted millet and barley cereals).
- Cooked vegetables and stews of potatoes, carrots, beets, zucchini, pumpkin, cauliflower, and white.
- A salad of ripe tomatoes, salads of cooked vegetables (except the onion, sauerkraut, and pickles), vegetables, salmon roe, herring and mincemeat.
- Kefir, yoghurt, sour milk and other dairy beverages, cheese, slices or shredded, scrambled eggs with cheese.
- - Thermal treatment in the form of frying, without the formation browned and grill, which stimulates the production of gastric juice.
- Mature not to puree fruit. Oranges and lemons (for tea), tangerine, watermelon, grape.
- Sauces, meat broth, of dishes by using broth.
- Tea with lemon, juices, coffee and cocoa, fruit juices (juice diluted).
When these gastritis are assigned to the products and dishes with choleretic action: vegetable oils, beet and beet juice of the lemons and the juice of lemon, melon, watermelon, avocado, saffron, fresh herbs, fruits, rosehip, leaves and root of dandelion. The restrictions (pea, bean soup, a person, a soup of corn, fat-resistant, flesh, salt, smoked fish, canned goods, boiled eggs, corn syrup, barley cereals, raw vegetables) are necessary only during the period of worsening, and with the improvement and the period of remission, the diet should be complete.
At the same time, excludes: breads, cakes, products of the mass of biscuit, beans, person, soup, corn, fatty meat, and the bird, smoked, fatty types of fish, salted and smoked fish, beans, wheat, corn syrup, barley, barley, cereals, raw vegetables, pickled vegetables, onion, radish, turnip, cucumber, rutabaga, peppers, garlic, mushrooms, very tapas, mustard, pepper, horseradish.
When hyperacidity gastritis (acidity), it is recommended that the Table no. 1 and its variants. Sequentially assigned to the Diet of 1 ° to 10 days, and then 1B , and no. 1 (up to two or three months). The diet includes neutral food: milk, eggs, cooked meat, fish, dairy products, cereals, pastries and fruit juices. In addition, it is recommended that small meals in small portions. The lack of food is a strong stimulus creates the conditions for an effective treatment. The basic principles are:
- The exception of products that increase the secretion (sharps, canned foods, dishes, rich sauces, mustard, alcoholic drinks, smoked and fried products, coffee, tea, soft drinks).
- The exception irritating products (cherry, tomato, garlic, onion, and juice of citrus fruit, acidic fruit juices, peppermint, chocolate, turnip, radish, alcoholic beverages, ginger) and products, reinforce the flatulence (cabbage, beans, kvass, beer).
- The increase in the consumption of proteins and the reduction of fat in the diet (fatty, pork, cream of milk, butter, goose, duck, cakes, and other cakes with cream, animal fat, lamb).
- Reducing the amount of food consumed (not more than 200 g at once).
- Frequent meals (up to 6 times per day).
- The use of food in the form of heat, excludes cold and excessively hot, irritating to the mucosa.
- The use of cooking, extinction and bake when you are cooking.
- The exception of foods that do not combine (proteins and carbohydrates) to avoid rotting and fermentation.
- The inclusion in the diet of juice of potato, banana, broth, oatmeal, apples and sweets (first cooked as a later fresh).
In general, the diet need to stay 1 to 3 months. Table no. 1 is complete and psychologically balanced (protein up to 90 to 100 g, 300 g of carbohydrate, fats 100 (g). Gradually, the diet expands to the experience of each person, but expressly excluded spices, aromatic herbs, salted, canned, smoked, canned, fatty foods (meat and fish). Even during the gastritis depends on the relationship of the patient with their health, to compliance with recommendations of prevention and discipline in relation to the intake of food and medicines.
In the period of worsening of disease for patients is important for the transition of diet from food, preventing the strong stimulators of secretion, and stimuli. Therefore, it is important to know the following.
Mechanical cause irritation:
- abundant intake of food;
- the large amount of crude fiber — containing, radishes, beans, turnips, radishes, bread with wheat bran, currant, grape, gooseberry, dates, raisins;
- the flesh with stripes, and cartilage of animals, the skin of poultry and fish.
Chemical cause irritation:
- the acid products (yogurt, whey and sour milk), acid green fruit;
- broth, broth of vegetables and mushrooms, spices, canned goods, dishes, fried, and smoked meats and fish products, pickled food, salted and sour vegetables, tomato sauce, meat stews, and fish, boiled eggs, rye bread, butter, dough, fat, food, subjected to heat treatment;
- strong tea, soft drinks, coffee, alcohol, raw vegetables (especially onion, garlic, turnip, radish) and fruits.
Thermal impact is causing too much cold or hot food.
Gentle treatment in addition to the elimination of stimulus also provides for the regular and small meals, which facilitates the digestion and assimilation of food. Preferably the cereal and liquid to the dish.
Before all of the above, the diet of the patient in the period of exacerbation should include warm, structurally unstable, mashed dishes. These are milk, eggs, dairy products, cereals, wheat, cooked fish, minced meat cooked in the steam.
You can die of starvation when the disease? The simple answer does not exist. The positive effect of this method of treatment is celebrated, but not always. The majority of the food reinforce significantly the secretion of hydrochloric acid, even though only the input of food in the oral cavity is called reflection of allocation of gastric juice. When starvation are immediately deleted these two factors of influence on the acidity. We can therefore expect to reduce it. The digestive system slows down the production not only of the gastric juice, but and saliva, bile, pancreatic enzymes. Peristaltic movement of the intestine also is reduced.
One of the signs about the need for maintenance of the discharge, is the lack of appetite. The larger observed treatment effect in the period of exacerbation, if combined with the starvation for 3-5 days, with the consequent consumption light. To achieve the effect of starvation combine with the water procedures and enemas daily. When you do this, the decomposition products and toxins more quickly out of your body. On the other hand, the fasting reduces the vital resources of the organism. It should not be applied when the anorexia and the strong weight reduction, in the midst of antibacterial, eradication of helicobacter pylori infection and pregnant.
Hunger should not start with the total lack of food, first you need to go for lightweight products, such as, for example, kefir (all day for 5 intake can eat 900 ml of yogurt, 200 g of cottage cheese, an apple). Such kefir discharge day spend 2-3 days in a row, and then move on to the fasting.
It can be run in two versions — the fast (denied receipt even water). The second option, with the ingestion of boiled or mineral degassed water. On the second day, you may use more weak tea. So are carried out 4 to 5 days. The resumption of power begin with the consumption of rice in the broth and crackers from wheat flour. Then go to the net, as well as oats, pasta, rice and semolina grain, that are boiled in water or with the addition of milk. It can be during the day eating cereal broth with soups and mucous membranes soups. Is prohibited the reception of fresh vegetables, fruits, juices.
Today, among scholars, there are those who argue the "behind" the rear seat of power in gastritis and other diseases of the digestive tract and "against". The debate about the benefits and the harm continues. The issue is that the food is divided into three groups: proteins, fats and carbohydrates, that are used separately. The main prohibition — the combination of a food intake starches (cereals, pasta, legumes, vegetables rich in starch) and animal protein. The meat can only be combined with the green, vegetables without starch. Green vegetables, in turn, combine with many products: fats, cereals and proteins. Sugar and confectionery products should be taken separately from any other products, otherwise, they cause fermentation, causing heartburn and burping. This in basic terms principles of food combining.