Ketogenic Diet (KETO) - A Complete Review. Disadvantages and advantages

what is the keto diet

These are popular foods that require low -carbohydrate and very high -fat foods, which cause changes in major sources of energy and metabolic conditions.

The aim is to create a state of ketosis such as fasting that can be achieved either by reducing food intake or by reducing carbohydrates. The last condition is a ketogenic diet (KETO diet).

The body, with a lack of carbohydrates for fuel (glucose), depletes glycogen stores, and fat burning in the liver will be the main source of energy.

As a result, you will receive what is called a ketone body (ketone), which you will distribute as nutrients to the brain, muscles and other organs.

Ketogenic Diet Menu

When compiling a ketogenic menu, your food should contain: carbohydrates (5-10%), fat (60%) and protein (30-35%).

Given that in a normal diet, almost half is usually carbohydrates, then a change in the diet is important.

You should avoid bread, potatoes, rice, pasta and fruits as much as possible.

What Should You Know About Ketogenic Diets?

  • Increase the percentage of calories from healthy fats (monounsaturated fatty acids, omega-3);
  • Limit your intake of fruits, which are high in carbohydrates. Switch to a low-carbohydrate intake of fruits and berries;
  • Always eat only when you are hungry. Even if only one meal a day. Don’t let others decide what to eat or when. You can’t cut out food on purpose, but you should stop eating when you’re not hungry, even if the plate isn’t empty yet, set it aside for later;
  • Don't count calories. Listen to your body. A ketogenic or low -carbohydrate diet by itself restores a healthy sense of hunger and satiety;
  • Increase your water intake to 2-3 liters a day;
  • Learn to eat natural foods such as eggs, meat, and non-starchy vegetables (anything that grows on the ground);
  • If you need snacks, use healthy snacks. Snacks like nuts, avocados or berries are great for this.
keto diet for weight loss

Approved Products

Foods allowed in a ketogenic diet or a keto diet usually contain fat and protein. The list is as follows:

  • Low carb vegetables: spinach and other leafy vegetables, avocados, cucumbers, cauliflower, broccoli, asparagus, cabbage, tomatoes, onions;
  • Avocados and berries: raspberries, blackberries and other berries;
  • Fish rich in double unsaturated fats: salmon, sardines, mackerel, trout, tuna, swordfish;
  • Meat and sausages: chicken and turkey, but you can also eat meat with fat;
  • Eggs;
  • Fatty dairy products such as cream, butter, goat cheese, cheddar, mozzarella, or sugar -free yogurt;
  • Nuts and seeds: nuts, almonds, pumpkin seeds, chia seeds;
  • Olive oil, coconut oil and avocado oil;
  • Salt, pepper, spices, mustard.

Use unsaturated fatty acids for salad dressings, such as olive oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, flaxseed oil, or avocado oil.

Some of them you can also use for cooking. Avoid processed vegetable oils such as margarine, soybean oil, corn germ oil, and grape seed oil.

If you eat beans, it is better to soak and dry them. Eat only genuine whole dairy products (or skip dairy altogether if you are allergic to them).

keto fish

If you consume dairy products, choose high -fat options. However, avoid milk (high in carbohydrates). If you want milk, choose a small amount of pasteurized whole milk (minimum 3. 5% fat).

In a keto diet, the amount of calories eaten is not the same as the amount of food eaten. These are mainly fats and some proteins. You can follow the example of a 30-day or 50-day ketogenic diet, however, it is a bit harsh and difficult to follow. You can combine these foods to your liking, preparing different foods from the list of allowed foods. The sample menu will be a guide to a varied diet over several days or weeks.

Prohibited Products

The following carbohydrate foods should be restricted in a ketogenic diet:

  • Fruits: they contain sugar, in the form of fructose, which is a carbohydrate;
  • Foods most avoided: dates, figs, grapes, mangoes, cherries, bananas, tangerines and apples;
  • The most unavoidable and edible fruits from time to time (from fewer carbohydrates to more): lemons, cranberries, raspberries, strawberries, watermelons, grapefruit and melons;
  • Bread, pasta, flour, rice;
  • Cereals: those that contain more carbohydrates are: wheat, muesli, wheat bran, rice flakes, wheat and barley flakes, corn flakes, and oat flakes;
  • Potatoes;
  • Beans: lentils, beans, peas, peas, asparagus;
  • Sweets and cakes, pastries;
  • Carbonated, sugary drinks and juices;
  • Processed foods and cooked foods (often high in fat and unhealthy carbohydrates).

Ketogenic diet and alcohol?

Can I Drink Alcohol During a Ketogenic Diet?

And if so, which alcohol has the least carbohydrates?

This is a common question people who want to lose weight ask themselves but don’t want to miss family events and parties.

One thing is clear: If you really want to lose weight fast, you must stop alcohol completely, because alcohol stops fat burning.

However, if during a ketogenic diet, you are in a situation where you must choose a type of alcohol with a minimum amount of carbohydrates, then follow these rules.

High carb alcohol:

  • One;
  • Liquor;
  • Cocktails;
  • Wine (sweet, semi -sweet).

Although the fermentation process produces sugars from grains, potatoes, natural sugars and fruits, the sugars are largely converted into ethyl alcohol.

Therefore, the alcohol content of carbohydrates is low compared to beer, cocktails, wine, liquor.

Low carb alcohol:

  • Vodka;
  • Jin;
  • Rum;
  • Whiskey;
  • Tequila.

Ketogenic diet - what vitamins and minerals do I need too?

While on a ketogenic diet, it is important not only to remember the intake of fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Trace minerals play an important role in well -being during a ketogenic diet.

Potassium, sodium and magnesiumare important micronutrients that should be the focus of attention during a ketogenic diet. If you do not eat enough of it during your diet, supplements are recommended.


Sodium is found in salt. So do not be afraid to give salt, preferably with Himalayan salt or use bone broth as a seasoning. However, salt retains water in the body, which can cause swelling. So everything needs measurement.


Extreme low -carbohydrate diets often suffer from insufficient amounts of magnesium. Eat extra almonds and other nuts, or take magnesium alone as a supplement.


Potassium is abundant in oily fish such as salmon, mushrooms and avocados. If you add foods that contain potassium, remember that your intake should not exceed 4, 700 mg.

How to incorporate a ketogenic diet into your daily life?

The biggest problems in executing your software plan are usually logistics and food preparation. We know that we each have a stressful life every day. Either a mom or a busy business woman who often goes on business trips or business dinners.

Often our daily lives sabotage our meal plans, and we are not always able to execute all our plans.

For this problem, there are solutions and useful tips on how you can continue to diet even if you are busy with daily life.

What are the benefits of a ketogenic diet?

Regarding the results of a ketogenic diet, it should be noted:


  • You don’t have to count calories, and it’s more effective to lose weight on a low -carb diet than a low -fat diet;
  • Many people who follow this type of diet to lose weight lose more than twice as many pounds than those who only follow a low -calorie diet. And this allows them to eat without starvation and maintain a healthy weight;
  • lose weight faster than other diets based on high protein and low fat food intake.

Diabetes mellitus

A ketogenic diet benefits diabetics because:

  • lowers blood sugar;
  • lose weight and body fat;
  • increases insulin sensitivity.

Overweight and obesity in type 2 diabetes, in addition to discomfort, are often the cause.

And blood glucose rises because it can't be used by cells, because it has insulin resistance, resistance.


Several studies have sought to evaluate whether lowering dietary sugar can have a positive effect on cancer control.


  • tumor cells multiply at a faster rate;
  • your energy metabolism is increasing;
  • Glucose (carbohydrate) intake is also higher;
  • cells use fat or protein for the energy they need to grow.

Appropriate ketogenic diet:

  • is a measure of support;
  • it will not be a substitute for treatment, as cancer cells are able to adapt to poor metabolic conditions better than normal cells.

There are no studies that show that this diet can prevent cancer.

For epilepsy

Only in a few cases of childhood epilepsy, where anti-epileptic medications are ineffective, the keto diet can reduce the incidence of seizures and is suitable for adjunctive therapy.

It has been observed that when a child with a diagnosis of epilepsy is given a diet food, the crisis diminishes or disappears.

The exact mechanism of the keto diet reducing seizure crises in epilepsy is unknown. However, this appears to be a result of metabolic and energetic changes occurring in the brain by ketone bodies that stabilize their electrical activity.

For Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease, some heart diseases, acne, and other disorders can be helped with a low -carbohydrate diet such as a ketogenic diet.

Keto Diet Deficiency

  • No specific side effects have been reported with this type of diet. Some uncomfortable symptoms may appear in the early days, although they usually go away quickly.
  • To reduce it, start your diet slowly, incorporating more fat into your ketogenic recipes gradually while reducing carbs.
  • This diet should not be strictly followed forever.
  • In some cases, people with high cholesterol levels can increase their risk of cardiovascular problems because the KETO diet involves the intake of high -fat foods. However, blood sugar levels drop and HDL cholesterol levels increase, and the diet itself shows weight loss, and this will definitely have a positive effect on blood pressure.
  • In addition, those with high blood uric acid should remember that such a diet can increase the risk of gout.
  • A common drawback of all weight loss diets is the "improving" effect when you finish the diet. Eating habits can take over and lost pounds can come back again.
  • Better for proper nutrition, plan dietary changes early in the medium and long term. You need to supplement your eating habits with regular exercise so that the health benefits can be felt.

So this is not about the dangers of a ketogenic diet, but about the disadvantages, usually in moderation or precautions.

Protein Food Deficiency on the Keto Diet

Start with a ketogenic diet in your daily life

  • If possible, remove from your home everything that is not suitable for this form of diet. It’s easy to forget when you find out that you have the food you want to eat in your home.
  • Always make a list of foods you want to cook next week. Preferably immediately for the next 2 weeks.
  • There are always boiled eggs and chicken fillet at home, this can be used as a snack.
  • Cheese is also a great snack, and you can always put a packet of almonds in your bag for a quick snack.
  • If you’re on the go, you can bring your own plate of dried chicken and a packet of mini tomatoes, peppers or boiled eggs without having to use dry bread or other snacks.
  • When meeting friends or shopping, surely somewhere you can find food with healthy and necessary food for you.
  • If you have a craving for sweets, drinking a glass of water with a drop of lemon juice or green tea or coffee with extra cream helps a lot.
  • Get used to drinking 2 liters of water a day. This habit will be useful for you in the future, when the diet is over.

Phase of the ketogenic diet

Initially, when the body enters ketosis, some mild symptoms may occur, although they disappear quickly:

  • senak;
  • constipation;
  • fatigue;
  • difficulty concentrating;
  • headache;
  • insomnia.

The mouth smells like acetone. This odor is common on ketotic and ketogenic diets.

How can I measure ketosis?

Ketosis can be found in the blood, urine, and even air. The cheapest and easiest way is with urine and some special test strips sold in pharmacies.

However, ketone body concentrations tend to decrease throughout the day. Your body uses it best as a source of energy.

This is why blood tests are the most accurate method. Test strips are also sold to detect ketone bodies in the blood, similar to those used by diabetics.

To avoid the loss of muscle mass caused by weight loss, following a weight loss diet requires your protein intake to be almost 35% and you exercise. Therefore, you will maintain lean body mass, and can even increase it, unlike other diets.

From time to time, at intervals, it is better to agree with a specialist (doctor or nutritionist), the amount of carbohydrate foods should be increased, but given the first two to three months, the diet should be stricter.

In addition, it should be borne in mind that severe dietary restrictions can reduce the quality of life and such a diet should not be long -term, for a very long period of time, because the side effects of ketogenic diets occur very long unknown.

Recipe for the KETO diet:

Omelette with green asparagus

asparagus keto omelet


  • green asparagus 0, 5 kg.
  • Eggs 4
  • Whipped cream 100 gr.
  • Parmesan 50 gr.
  • Nutmeg
  • Lada
  • Salt

Getting Started:

  • Cut the asparagus stalks in half;
  • Add salt water for about 5 minutes;
  • Remove from water and pat dry;
  • Spread the asparagus on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper;
  • Whip eggs with cream, salt, pepper and season with nutmeg;
  • Pour in the asparagus and rub the Parmesan on top;

In a preheated oven at 180 ° C, cook for 25-30 minutes until golden brown;
Serve in slices.

Tomato and avocado salad


  • Small Shallots 1
  • Tomato 2
  • Avocado 2
  • Lime 1
  • ground cumin
  • ground coriander
  • Salt
  • Lada

Getting Started:

  • Peel and chop the onion;
  • Finely squeeze tomatoes;
  • Core, peel and chop the avocado;
  • Rinse the hot lemon, wipe dry and slightly grate the skin;
  • Squeeze kaffir lime juice.

Lemon juice, grated zest, onion cubes, 1 pinch of cumin, 1 pinch of coriander, salt and pepper, mix into the peel. Mix the avocados and tomatoes 5 minutes later and let the lettuce steep for about 10 minutes.

Turkey in lettuce

keto turkey


  • Large lettuce leaves (e. g. Roman salad) 8 seeds.
  • 1 bunch of carrots
  • Bow (1 Bundel)
  • Cottage cheese (6 tbsp. ) 120 gr.
  • Thin slices of turkey ham (8 slices of turkey ham or smoked turkey)
  • Salt
  • Lada

Getting Started:

  • Wash and dry the lettuce leaves;
  • Peel, wash and chop the radish;
  • Wash, dry and chop the onions;
  • Mix the carrots with the curds and onions and season with salt and pepper.

Place 2 lettuce leaves, overlapping each other, and 2 slices of ham on top; Spread the curd thinly on the lettuce leaves, leaving a distance to the edges.

Wrap the lettuce leaves in and wrap tightly with measuring tape in a baking paper wrapper and refrigerate for 2 hours in the refrigerator until ready to eat. Enjoy your meal!

Frequently Asked Questions

How does the KETO diet affect my muscles?

Muscle loss can happen with any diet. Because of the low ketogenic protein content of protein, muscle loss is of course possible, but this can be minimized, and with the help of exercise, additional muscle can be added. This can be a little harder than a regular high carb diet, but can be done.

Do I need to lose carbs permanently?

No. However, for the first two to three months, you should refrain, after which it may be beneficial to consume more calories and more carbohydrates over time. This keeps your metabolism in good shape.

Is my body protein enough?

In a ketogenic diet, there is a sufficient percentage of protein to overcome muscle loss. Adequate protein - about 35 percent of energy needs - needs to be consumed. Strength training also helps with building muscle. Carbohydrates should be eaten from time to time to increase metabolism. If you consume more protein, this can lead to an increase in insulin levels and a shutdown of ketone body formation.